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Prezident Jefferson Lyuis va Klark ekspeditsiyasini moliyalashtirishni so'raydi

Prezident Jefferson Lyuis va Klark ekspeditsiyasini moliyalashtirishni so'raydi


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1803 yil 18 yanvarda Tomas Jefferson Lyuis va Klark ekspeditsiyasini moliyalashtirish uchun Kongressdan mablag 'so'radi.

Jefferson Kongressdan rasmiy ravishda 2500 AQSh dollari miqdorida mablag 'so'radi, biroq ba'zi manbalarda ekspeditsiya oxir -oqibat 50 ming dollarga yaqin bo'lganini ko'rsatadi. Meriueter Lyuisga uning do'sti Uilyam Klark va yana 50 kishi qo'shildi, shu jumladan qul afro -amerikalik va ayol amerikalik gid Sacagawea. Jefferson kashfiyot korpusi deb atagan guruh birinchi bo'lib Luiziana Xaridini o'z ichiga olgan hududni o'rganib chiqdi, bu keng shimoliy Dakota shtatigacha, Meksika ko'rfazigacha janubgacha va Ispaniyaning sharqiy chegarasida to'xtadi. hozirgi Texasdagi hudud. Keyin jamoa Rokki qirg'og'idan o'tib, hozirgi Oregon shtatining Tinch okeani sohiliga daryo yo'llari bo'ylab bordi. Qaytib kelgach, duetning ular duch kelgan ekzotik va hayratlanarli yangi erlar haqidagi xabarlari g'arb tomon kengayishning yangi to'lqinini qo'zg'atdi.

Birinchi marta Jefferson kashfiyot ekspeditsiyasini Napoleon Luiziana sotib oladigan Frantsiyaning Amerika hududini Qo'shma Shtatlarga sotishni taklif qilishidan oldin ham taklif qilgan va Kongressdan Napoleonning sotish taklifi haqidagi xabar Vashingtonga etib kelganida hududni o'rganishga ruxsat bergan. . AQShga omad kulib boqganda, Napoleon Amerikaning janubiy qanotida frantsuz tayanchini o'rnatish rejasidan voz kechdi va Evropani zabt etish uchun erni AQShga sotdi.

Garchi u Kongressga o'z niyatini oshkor qilmagan bo'lsa -da, Jefferson o'zining shaxsiy kotibi Meriufer Lyuisni Luiziana sotib olish chegarasidan ancha oshgan razvedka missiyasiga AQShning g'arbiy qismi Shimoliy Amerika mo'ynasi savdosini qanchalik kengaytirishini aniqlash uchun yuborishni rejalashtirgan. va kelajakda g'arbga hududiy kengayishning hayotiyligini baholash. Kongressni chalg'itib, Jefferson strategik maqsadga erishish uchun ijro etuvchi imtiyozlarini suiiste'mol qilgani uchun nafratini vaqtincha to'xtatdi. Ma'rifat mahsuli bo'lgan Jefferson kuchli siyosiy tamoyillarga ega bo'lgan odam edi, lekin u ham ekspeditsiyaning ilmiy kashfiyot va sarguzashtlarga nima olib kelishi mumkinligi bilan qiziqdi. Jefferson Qo'shma Shtatlar uchun ko'proq hududni egallashga, xorijiy raqobatni yo'q qilishga va hind xalqlarini nasroniylikka aylantirishga harakat qildi, g'arbga qarab kengayish millatning agrar qadriyatlarini saqlab qolish va o'zi ko'rgan siyosiy xavf -xatarlardan qochish yo'li sifatida qaradi. tobora ko'payib borayotgan Evropa.

KO'PROQ O'QING: Lyuis va Klark haqida kam ma'lum bo'lgan 10 ta fakt


Tomas Jefferson G'arb

Tomas Jefferson hayotining boshida g'arbiy tadqiqotlarga qiziqib qoldi. Uning otasi Piter Virjiniya chegarasida geodezer, xarita ishlab chiqaruvchi va er spekülatörü bo'lgan. Jefferson bolaligini Virjiniya Pyemontining g'arbiy chekkasidagi Blue Ridge tog'larida o'tkazdi. Garchi u hech qachon Virjiniya Blue Ridge chegarasidan tashqariga chiqmagan bo'lsa-da, Jefferson umr bo'yi g'arbiy tadqiqotlarni qo'llab-quvvatlash va Amerikaning g'arbiy erlarga da'volarini qo'llab-quvvatlash majburiyatiga ega edi. Ko'pchilik zamondoshlariga qaraganda, Jefferson Amerika G'arbi bo'sh cho'l emas, balki ziddiyatli davlatlar va suverenitet da'volar bilan to'lib -toshgan er ekanligini tushundi. Hatto milliy lavozimni egallashdan oldin, Jefferson bir necha bor g'arbga ekspeditsiyalar uyushtirishga harakat qilgan. Prezident bo'lganida, Jefferson 1803 yilda Fransiyadan Luiziana shtatini muvaffaqiyatli sotib oldi va Lyuis va Klark ekspeditsiyasini (1803 va ndash1806) Missuri daryosining Tinch okeaniga xaritalash va ilmiy kashfiyotga yubordi. U, shuningdek, Qizil, Arkanzas va Missisipi daryolarining boshini topish va tubjoy amerikaliklar haqida ilmiy ma'lumotlar va ma'lumotlarni to'plash uchun boshqa ekspeditsiyalarni yubordi.

O'zini "Ldquoan ozodlik imperiyasi" deb atashni istab, Jefferson mahalliy amerikaliklarga nisbatan mamlakat siyosatiga va G'arbga qullikning kengayishiga ta'sir ko'rsatdi. Mahalliy amerikaliklar madaniyatiga umrbod qiziqish bildirganiga qaramay, Prezident Jefferson tubjoy amerikaliklar va ularning turmush tarzini buzadigan siyosatni qo'llab-quvvatladi. 1784 yilda Jefferson qullikning shimoli -g'arbiy hududda kengayishiga qarshi chiqdi, lekin keyinchalik u g'arbga qarab kengayishini qo'llab -quvvatladi, chunki u qullikning har qanday cheklanishi fuqarolar urushiga va millatning tugashiga olib kelishi mumkinligidan qo'rqardi. Prezidentlik muddati oxirida Jefferson Shimoliy Amerikaning butun qit'asida tarqalgan Qo'shma Shtatlarni orziqib kutdi.


Jeffersonning Kongressga Lyuis va Klark ekspeditsiyasi haqidagi maxfiy xabari (1803)

1803 yil 18-yanvardagi maxfiy xabarda Prezident Jefferson Kongressdan G'arbni Tinch okeanigacha o'rganish uchun 2500 dollar so'radi. O'sha paytda bu hudud AQShga tegishli emas edi. Kongress Meriveter Lyuis va Uilyam Klark boshchiligidagi ekspeditsiyani moliyalashtirishga rozi bo'ldi.

Savdoni rag'batlantirish nuqtai nazaridan kelib chiqqan so'rovning kamtarligi, uning ortidagi tasavvurning ulug'vorligini inkor etdi. Jefferson uzoq vaqtdan beri G'arbni hayratga solgan va butun qit'ani qamrab oladigan Qo'shma Shtatlarni orzu qilgan.

Jefferson Uilyam Klark bilan birgalikda ekspeditsiyani boshqargan Meriweter Lyuisga yangi savdo yo'llarini izlashni, hindlarning g'arbiy qabilalari bilan do'stlashishni va G'arbning geografiyasi, geologiyasi, astronomiyasi, zoologiyasi, botanikasi va iqlimi haqida hisobot berishni buyurdi. 8000 millik ekspeditsiya AQSh hukumatiga Missisipi daryosining g'arbida joylashgan ulkan erlar haqida birinchi tasavvurni taqdim etdi.

Prezident Jefferson Meriueter Lyuis bilan yaqindan ish olib bordi va u hindular uchun qurol -yarog ', oziq -ovqat, dori -darmonlar, lager uskunalari, ilmiy asbob -uskunalar va sovg'alar uchun partiyaga nima kerakligini oldindan bildi. Ular yaxshi rejalashtirishgan. Ekspeditsiyada viski, tamaki va tuz kabi hashamatli narsalar tugagan bo'lsa-da, ular hech qachon o'zlarini himoya qilish uchun ham, oziq-ovqat bilan ta'minlash uchun ham zarur bo'lgan miltiq va kukunni tugatmaganlar va ularning topilmalarini yozib olish uchun siyoh va qog'oz ham tugamagan. .

Lyuis va Klark ekspeditsiyasi haqida qo'shimcha ma'lumot va boshqa hujjatlar uchun Milliy arxivning "Kengayish va islohotlar" bo'limiga tashrif buyuring. Amerika asl nusxalari ko'rgazma.

(Ma'lumot Steysi Bredxofdan olingan, Amerika asl nusxalari [Sietl: Vashington universiteti matbuoti, 2001], p. 28)


Lyuis va Klark Trail merosi jamg'armasi

1803 yilda Prezident Tomas Jefferson Kongress tomonidan Amerika tarixining eng buyuk sarguzashtli hikoyalaridan biriga aylanadigan loyihani ma'qulladi. Jefferson amerikaliklar Tinch okeaniga quruqlik bo'ylab ikkita daryo - Missuri va Kolumbiya bo'ylab sayohat qilishlari mumkinligini bilmoqchi edi. Ikkala daryo ham Rokki tog'lardan oqib chiqardi, u bilardi: Missuri Roki sharqidan, Kolumbiya g'arbdan Tinch okeanigacha oqadi.

Agar daryolarning manbalari bir -biriga yaqin bo'lsa, Jefferson amerikalik savdogarlar Kanadadan janubga qarab ingliz mo'ynali kiyimlarini ishlab chiqaruvchi kompaniyalar bilan raqobatlashish uchun bu yo'lni ishlatishi mumkin deb o'ylardi.

1803 yil 28 -fevralda Kongress AQSh armiyasining kichik bo'linmasiga Missuri va Kolumbiya daryolarini o'rganish uchun mablag 'ajratdi. Tadqiqotchilar erning geografiyasi, iqlimi, o'simliklari, hayvonlari haqida batafsil hisobot berishlari, shuningdek, hindlarning urf -odatlari va tillarini o'rganishlari kerak edi. Prezident Fransiya Luiziana shtatining butun hududini AQShga sotishni taklif qilganini bilgach, ekspeditsiya rejalari deyarli yakunlandi. Bir yil ichida yakunlangan bu transfer AQShning maydonini ikki baravar oshirdi. Bu Jefferson armiyasi ekspeditsiyasi Amerika eridagi Rokki cho'qqisiga sayohat qilishi mumkin edi, endi sobiq frantsuz egalarining ruxsatiga muhtoj emas edi.

Jefferson ekspeditsiya boshlig'i sifatida armiya sardori 28 yoshli Meriweter Lyuisni tanladi. Jeffersonlar va Lyuislar 1774 yil 18 -avgustda tug'ilgan Virjiniya shtatining Charlottesvil shahri yaqinidagi qo'shnilar edi. Bolaligida u o'rmonda vaqt o'tkazib, mahalliy o'simliklar va hayvonlar to'g'risida ajoyib bilimlarga ega bo'lgan. 1794 yilda u Vashington Virjiniya militsiyasida xizmat qilgan, prezident Vashington viski qo'zg'olonini bostirishga chaqirgan. Lyuis 1801 yilda yangi saylangan Jefferson uni "Prezident uyida" shaxsiy kotibi sifatida ishlashga chaqirganida muvaffaqiyatli armiya karerasini egallagan.

Lyuis ekspeditsiyaning hamraisi sifatida sobiq armiya safdoshi, 32 yoshli Uilyam Klarkni tanladi. Klark 1770 yil 1 -avgustda Virjiniya shtatining Karolin okrugida tug'ilgan. 14 yoshida uning oilasi Kentukki shahriga ko'chib o'tdi, u erda ular birinchi ko'chmanchilar qatorida edilar. Uilyam Klark inqilobiy urush qahramoni general Jorj Rojers Klarkning eng yosh ukasi edi. Uilyam Shimoliy -G'arbiy hududida hind urushlari paytida general "Mad Entoni" Ueyn qo'lida xizmat qilgan.

Ekspeditsiyaga tayyorgarlik ko'rayotganda, Lyuis prezident Jeffersonning Filadelfiyadagi ilmiy sheriklariga tashrif buyurib, tabiiy fanlar, astronomik navigatsiya va dala tibbiyoti bo'yicha dars berdi. Shuningdek, unga amerikalik hindulardan uchrashishlarini so'rash uchun ularning kundalik hayoti haqidagi savollar ro'yxati berilgan. Tayyorgarlik paytida Lyuis "20 dollarga" Dengizchini sotib oldi, uning "yangi tog'li iti iti" Tinch okeaniga hamrohlik qildi.

Lyuis va Klark 1803 yil dekabrda Sent -Luis yaqinidagi Missisipi va Missuri daryolarining qo'shilish joyiga etib kelishdi. Ular qish uchun Missisipi shtatining Illinoys shtatida, Vud daryosining og'zida, Missuri shtatiga kiraverishda qarorgoh qurishdi. Daryo. Ikkala kapitan yosh o'rmonchilarni va yaqin qo'shin postlaridan ixtiyoriy ravishda askarlarni yollashdi. Qishda yakuniy tanlov taniqli erkaklardan qilingan. Bahorda, ekspeditsiya ro'yxati taxminan 45 kishidan iborat edi, ular orasida harbiy xizmatchilar va mahalliy qayiqchilar bor edi, ular ekspeditsiya bilan Missuri shtatining bir qismigacha ketishdi. Lyuis yozishicha, Vud daryosining og'zi g'arbga sayohat uchun "chiqish nuqtasi" bo'lishi kerak.

Quyi Missuri: 1804 yil maydan 1805 yil aprelgacha


Ekspeditsiya lagerni 1804 yil 14 -mayda sindirdi. Klark o'z jurnalida shunday yozgan edi: "Men soat 4 da ertalab soat 9 da yo'lga tushdim va Missuri shtatida jimgina davom etdim". Partiya 55 metr uzunlikdagi qayiq va ikkita kichik qayiqda sayohat qildi, ular "pirogues" deb nomlangan. Uzoq, issiq yoz davomida ular tirishqoqlik bilan harakat qilishdi. Ko'plab navigatsion xavflar, shu jumladan "arralash" deb nomlangan cho'kib ketgan daraxtlar, qum barlari, daryo qirg'og'ining qulashi va kuchli shamollar, kuchli yomg'irlar, ularning rivojlanishini sekinlashtirdi. Boshqa muammolar bor edi, jumladan intizomiy qamoqqa olish, ikki marta qochish, qo'zg'olon uchun sharmandalik bilan bo'shatilgan odam va serjantning o'limi. Charlz Floyd, ekspeditsiya paytida vafot etgan yagona a'zo. Zamonaviy Janubiy Dakota shtatida Teton Sioux guruhi qayiqlarni ushlab turishga harakat qilishdi, ammo tadqiqotchilar o'zlarining yuqori qurollanishlarini ko'rsatib, suzib ketishdi.

Noyabr oyi boshida ular Shimoliy Dakota shtatining hozirgi Washburn shahri yaqinida yashovchi hindularning Mandan va Minitari (Hidatsa) qishloqlariga kelishdi. Missuri daryosining shimoliy qirg'og'ida ular yog'ochdan yasalgan qal'a qurish uchun tikilgan paxta daraxtlari bog'ini topdilar. Bir -biriga yaqin turgan daraxtlar dasht shamolidan himoyalanishni ham taklif qilishdi.

To'rt haftalik mashaqqatli ishda erkaklar uchburchak shaklidagi qal'a qurdilar. Kichik kulbalar, ikki tomondan, old tomondan tik paxta yog'ochdan yasalgan devorlardan iborat edi. Ular mahalliy aholi sharafiga Fort Mandan deb nom berishgan. Bayram 164 kun va Vud daryosidan taxminan 1,510 mil uzoqlikda edi.

Tadqiqotchilar Fort Mandanda besh oy bo'lishdi, ov qilishdi va yaqin atrofda yashovchi hindular va frantsuz-kanadalik savdogarlardan oldingi yo'l haqida ma'lumot olishdi. Ekspeditsiyaning temirchilari ustaxonani o'rnatdilar va asboblar va asboblar yasadilar, ular Amerika hindularining bog'dagi makkajo'xori, poliz va loviya ekinlari uchun sotildi. Toussaint Charbonneau ismli frantsuz-kanadalik kapitanlarga yosh homilador Shoshone xotini Sakagava bilan tashrif buyurdi.

Sakagavaning qabila vatani g'arbdagi Rokki tog'li mamlakatda yotardi. U besh yil oldin, o'n ikki yoshida, oddiy hindular tomonidan o'g'irlab ketilgan va Mandan va Minitari qishloqlariga olib ketilgan, u erda u Charbonneauga sotilgan. Sacagawea Shoshone va Minitari bilan gaplashdi va kapitanlar, agar partiya Shoshones bilan uchrashsa, u qimmatbaho vositachi bo'lishi mumkinligini tushundi. Ular, shuningdek, Charbonneau va g'arb tog'larini kesib o'tish uchun zarur bo'lgan otlarni sotishda yordam berishi mumkinligini bilishardi. Bundan tashqari, Sakagava va uning bolasi sulh belgisi bo'lardi va hindularga ekspeditsiya tinch bo'lganiga ishontirar edi. Keyinchalik Klark Kolumbiya daryosidan tushganda buni ta'kidladi: "Bu chorakda hindlarning urush partiyasiga hech bir ayol hamrohlik qilmaydi". Natijada, sardorlar Charbonneau -ni yollashdi, unga Sacagawea va ularning kichkina o'g'li Jan Baptist Charbonneau qo'shildi, 1805 yil 11 -fevral, Fort Mandan shahrida tug'ilgan. Bolakay o'zining dabdabali "Pomp" laqabli Klarkning sevimlisiga aylandi. "Kichkina raqsga tushgan bola" antics.

Yuqori Missuri: 1805 yil apreldan 1805 yil iyulgacha



Mandan qishloqlaridan daryo bo'ylab harakatlanib, ular Yelloustonning Missuri bilan qo'shilish joyidan o'tib, Lyuis "umumiy va cheksiz yaylovda boffalo, buloq, kiyik va antilopalarning boqilishini" kuzatgan mamlakatga kirishdi. Grizli ayiqlar ularni ovlagan odamlarga ayb qo'ydi.

Lyuis "bir ayiqdan ko'ra, ikkita hindistonlik bilan jang qilishini" aytdi. Daryolarda navigatsiya qilish qiyinlashdi. Shiddatli bo'ron paytida, muhim yozuvlar va asboblarni olib yurgan pirog suvga to'la boshladi va deyarli ag'darilib ketdi. Samolyot bortida bo'lgan Sakagava ko'plab narsalarni qutqarib qoldi, chunki ular suzishdi. May oyining oxirida Rokki tog'lar paydo bo'ldi.

Daryoning oqimi kuchayib bordi. Tadqiqotchilar qirg'oq bo'ylab yurish paytida belkuraklarni tashlab, og'ir kanolarni xom arqon bilan tortib olishlari kerak edi. Daryo bo'ylari jarliklarga yo'l berganda, erkaklar qayiqlarni tepaga surib, tortib, suvda suzib yurishlari kerak edi.

Iyun oyining boshida tadqiqotchilar Missuri shtatining shimoliy va janubiy shoxlariga teng ravishda bo'linadigan joyga etib kelishdi. Bu erda ular to'qqiz kun davomida janubiy filial haqiqiy Missuri bo'lgan degan xulosaga kelishdi. Lyuis shimoliy vilkasini Marias daryosi deb atadi va sharsharalarni eshitmaguncha janubiy vilkadan keyin kichik guruhni kuzatib bordi. Fort Mandandagi hindular ularga Missuri shtatining qulashi haqida aytib berishgan, shuning uchun Lyuis uning to'g'ri oqimda ekanini bilgan.

Bu erda, Montana shtatining Buyuk sharsharasi yaqinida, ekspeditsiya Missuri shtatining beshta kaskadlari bo'ylab 18 mil yurishi kerak edi. Erkaklar paxta g'ildiraklarini kanoga bog'lab, ularni quruqlikka surishdi. Ob -havo issiq edi, vaqti -vaqti bilan shovqin -suron ziyofatni katta, ko'kargan do'l bilan yog'dirdi.

Og'ir qayiqlarni va yuklarni daryodan tik yonbag'rga ko'tarish va dashtlarning uzoq qismini bosib o'tish juda og'ir sinov edi. Tikanli nok tikanlari oyoqlariga mokasin tagliklari orqali kirib borib, qiyin va charchagan portajni qo'shib qo'ydi.

Bu portaj bo'ylab uch hafta davomida kano va yuklarni tashib bo'lgach, "Oq ayiq oroli" sharsharasi tepasida lager tashkil etildi. Ular daryo bo'ylab sayohatini davom ettirish uchun katta yengil qayiq yasash uchun terisini cho'zgan metall ramkani olib kelishdi. Teri ostidan tikilgan suv oqsa, reja muvaffaqiyatsizlikka uchradi. Ular ramkadan voz kechib, yana ikkita paxtadan kano yasashlari kerak edi.

G'arbiy bo'linish: 1805 yil iyuldan 1805 yil noyabrgacha

25 iyul kuni ekspeditsiya Missuri shtati uchta vilkaga bo'lingan joyga etib keldi. Janubi -sharqiy filial Gallatin nomini G'aznachilik kotibi deb atadi. Janubi davlat kotibi uchun Madison deb nomlangan. G'arbdagi filial "Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari Prezidenti Tomas Jeffersonning ulug'vor shaxsi sharafiga" Jefferson daryosiga aylandi.

G'arbdan oqayotgani uchun kapitan Jeffersonga ergashishga qaror qildi. Sakagaviyadan, ular endi o'z xalqining an'anaviy taom yig'iladigan erlari ichida ekanliklarini bilib, Lyuis Shoshonlarni qidirishga kirishdi. Avgust oyining o'rtalarida u tog'lardagi buloqqa yetib keldi va uni Missuri shtatining "eng olis favvorasi" deb atadi. Uning narigi tomonida baland tog'dagi egar bor edi (hozirgi Lemhi dovoni), undan Lyuis g'arbda baland, qor bilan qoplangan tog'larni ko'rdi. Uning oyog'i ostidagi irmoq g'arbga qarab yugurdi va u qit'a bo'linishini kesib o'tganini bildi. Ariq hozirgi Ilon daryosining ko'plab irmoqli oqimlaridan biri bo'lib, u o'z navbatida Kolumbiyaga qo'shilgan.

Kontinental bo'linishning g'arbida, Lyuis ikkita Shoshone ayol va qutulish mumkin bo'lgan ildizlarni qazayotgan qizga duch keldi. Lyuis ularga sovg'alar berdi va tez orada ularga ot ustida ko'p sonli Shoshone erkaklar qo'shildi. Bir qancha Shoshones hamrohligida bu skautlik safaridan qaytgan Lyuis yana Klark va asosiy partiyaga qo'shildi. Tadqiqotchilar hindular bilan Montana shtatining hozirgi Dillon shahridan bir necha chaqirim narida lager qurdilar va uni "Baxtli lager" deb nomladilar. Bu erda Sakagava bolalikdan qiz do'stini topdi. Qiz ikkalasi ham asirga olinganda Sakagava bilan bo'lgan, lekin qochib, o'z xalqiga qaytgan. Sakagava o'z akasi Kamaxveyt endi qabila boshlig'i ekanligini bilib qoldi. Aka -uka va opa -singillar birlashganda, bu hissiyotli sahna edi.

Qaytish safarini o'ylab, kapitan Lyuis suv osti kanolariga "baland suv va yong'in ta'siridan ehtiyot bo'ling, hindular ularga qasddan shikast etkazmaslikka va'da berdi". Keyin partiya Continental Divide orqali Shoshonesning asosiy qishlog'iga o'tdi. Sacagawea tarjimon sifatida muhim xizmat ko'rsatganida, Shoshone qo'llanmasi yollangan va hindular bilan ot minish va yuk tashish uchun savdo muvaffaqiyatli bo'lgan. Qisqa vaqtdan so'ng, hozirgi ot minadigan korpus o'z yo'lboshchisi Old Tobining ortidan "dahshatli tog'lar" ga kirdi.

Sentyabr, yarim ochlikdan chiqqan tadqiqotchilar, zamonaviy Montana va Aydaxodagi Bitterroot tog'lari bo'ylab qadimgi hind yo'li-Lolo izidan o'tayotganda, ot go'shti bilan omon qolganlarini topdilar. Bu erda ular yiqilgan yog'och, sovuq sovuqda va siljigan, xavfli sayohatga duch kelishdi, qor bo'ronining boshida. Tog'larning g'arbiy yonbag'iridan pastga tushib, ular Nez -Perce qishlog'iga etib kelishdi.

Bu erda mahalliy aholi losos, ildiz va rezavorlar bayramini taqdim etishdi. Qo'rqinchli kashfiyotchilar, bu odatlanmagan parhez ularni o'ta kasal qilib qo'yganini, hayajonlanib topdilar.

Guruh bugungi Clearwater daryosiga etib keldi va u erda o'z markalarini markirovka qildilar va qaytib kelgunlariga qadar otlarini Nez Pertsning qaramog'ida qoldirdilar. Ular yangi kanolarni qurdilar va toshbo'ronli tezliklardan o'tdilar, bu esa tez, ammo xavfli rivojlanishga erishdi. Oktyabr oyining boshida ular Ilon daryosiga, so'ngra 16 oktyabrda Kolumbiyaga etib kelishdi. Bu qudratli daryodan ular suzishdi, hozirgi Oregon shtatining Dalles shahri yaqinidagi "Kolumbiya Buyuk sharsharasi" ga (Selilo sharsharasi) etib kelishdi. Bu erda, shuningdek, Kaskad tog'larida Klark "Buyuk Shut" deb nomlangan g'azabli tezliklarga duch kelganda, ular yana og'ir portajlarga majbur bo'ldilar.

2 -noyabr kuni ular Kolumbiyadagi suv oqimining sokin oqimiga suzib ketishdi. Klark, 7 -noyabr kuni shunday deb yozgan edi: "Biz lagerda biz juda xursand bo'ldik, biz uzoq vaqtdan beri orziqib kutayotgan Tinch okeanining buyuk okeanini ko'ramiz". Ular hali ham oqimdan 25 mil narida edi va ular daryoning keng daryo bo'yidagi bo'ronli to'lqinlarini ko'rishdi.

Keyingi to'qqiz kun davomida vahshiy shamollar esdi, daryoga okean to'lqinlari quyildi va yomg'ir yog'di, ularni qoyalar tagidagi to'lqin tepasidagi himoyalanmagan lagerlarda qoldirdi. Noyabr oyining o'rtalarida kapitanlar nihoyat Kolumbiya og'zi yaqinidagi Tinch okeanining qumlari bo'ylab yurishdi, bu ularning g'arbiy maqsadi. Klarkning yozishicha, 554 kun o'tgan va Vud daryosidan ketganidan keyin 4132 mil yurgan.

Tinch okeani: 1805 yil noyabrdan 1806 yil martgacha

Kapitan Lyuis o'zi bilan birga Jefferson imzolangan akkreditivni olib bordi, bu tadqiqotchilarning Kolumbiya daryosining bo'g'ozida uchrashgan har qanday Amerika yoki xorijiy savdo kemasi orqali dengiz orqali qaytishi uchun kafolat berdi. Ular okeanga etib kelganda hech qanday kemani ko'rmaganlar va ularning ma'lumotlariga ko'ra, qirg'oqda to'rt oy qolishganida, hech kim daryoning notinch kirish joyiga kirmagan. Darhaqiqat, sardorlar hech qachon dengiz orqali qaytib kelishni jiddiy xohlamagan, aksincha qirg'oqqa yaqin lager qurishni afzal ko'rgan. U erda ular savdo kemalaridan "uyimizga qaytishimiz uchun zarur narsalarni sotib olish uchun hindistonlik buyumlarning yangi ta'minotini" olishni umid qilishdi.

Kolumbiya (Vashington shtati) shimoliy qirg'og'ida o'yinning yo'qligi va qattiq qish bo'ronlariga himoyalanmaganligi sababli, daryodan janub tomonga (Oregon) o'tishni tanlagan partiya, hindular ularga xabar berishicha, bug'ular va kiyiklar ko'p bo'lgan. . A'zolarning haqiqiy ovozi qayd etildi, bu Rokki g'arbiy qismida demokratik tarzda o'tkazilgan birinchi Amerika saylovi bo'lib, unda ayol, Sakagava va afroamerikalik erkak, York ovozi bor edi.

Daryodan o'tib, ular 1805-06 yillardagi qishki turar joylarini Oregon shtatining zamonaviy Astoriya shahridan besh mil janubda joylashgan himoyalangan joyda qurdilar va uni qo'shnilari Klatsop hindulari uchun Fort Klatsop deb nomladilar. Erkaklar qishda oziq -ovqat uchun kiyik ovlab, kiyilgan terisini almashtirish uchun kiyik terisi uchun kiyim va mokasin yasashgan.

Lyuis o'z jurnalini o'simliklar, qushlar, sutemizuvchilar, baliqlar, amfibiyalar, ob -havo ma'lumotlari va hind madaniyatiga oid batafsil ma'lumotlar bilan to'ldirdi. Klark ko'plab hayvonlar va o'simliklarning rasmlarini chizdi va o'z sayohatlari xaritalarini dolzarb qildi. Sacagawea Klark va bir necha odam bilan birga qirg'oqqa sayohatga borib, "dahshatli baliq" dan, plyajda yuvilgan kitdan, yog 'sotib olishdi. Yo'lda ular hozirgi Oregon shtatining Seaside shahridagi Ekspeditsiyaning tuz tuzish lageriga tashrif buyurishdi, u erda bir necha kishi yigirma gallon tuz ishlab chiqarish uchun deyarli bir oy davomida dengiz suvida qaynab turgan doimiy olovni yoqishdi.

Qaytish sayohati: 1806 yil martdan 1806 yil sentyabrgacha

1806 yil 23 martda tadqiqotchilar yangi sotib olingan hind kanolarida Kolumbiyani zaxiralashni boshladilar. Kolumbiyaning Buyuk sharsharasida ular mahalliy hindular bilan otlar uchun almashishdi va daryoning shimoliy qirg'og'iga piyoda yo'l olishdi. Yo'l davomida turli qabilalardan ot minib, partiya may oyida Nez Perce qishloqlariga etib bordi. Bir oy davomida Nez Perce o'rtasida lagerda bo'lganida, baland tog'li qorlar kapitanlarning erishini kutib, kasal va jarohatlangan hindularga mahalliy oziq -ovqat evaziga tibbiy yordam ko'rsatdi.

Nez Perce ekspeditsiyaning qishda parvarish qilgan otlarini yig'ib oldi, bu esa kapitanlarning transportning etarli bo'lishidan xavotirini yumshatdi, chunki partiya iyun oyining boshida sharqqa sayohatini qaytadan boshladi. Achchiq ildizlar orqali chiqish yo'lini kuzatib, ularni o'tib bo'lmaydigan qor bo'ronlari qaytarib yubordi va butun sayohatning yagona "retrograd yurishini" qilishdi. Bir haftalik tanaffusdan so'ng, ular yana yo'lni boshlashdi va tog'larni muvaffaqiyatli kesib o'tishdi. 30 iyun kuni ular Montana shtatining zamonaviy Missoula shahridan o'n bir mil janubda joylashgan "Sayohatchilar dam olish" lageriga etib kelishdi va u erda tirishqoqlik bilan dam olishdi.

1806 yil 3 -iyulda partiya ajralib chiqdi. Lyuis to'qqiz kishi bilan to'g'ridan -to'g'ri sharqqa, Missuri shtatining Buyuk sharsharasiga yo'l oldi. Keyin u uch kishi bilan Marias daryosini kashf qilish uchun shimolga yo'l oldi va deyarli Kanada chegarasigacha bordi. Lyuis va uning hamrohlari Blackfeet hindulari bilan tun bo'yi lager qilishdi, ular kunduzi tadqiqotchilarning qurollarini o'g'irlab, otlarini haydab chiqarishga harakat qilishdi. Lyuis keyingi to'qnashuvni tasvirlab berar ekan, uni hindistonlik o'qqa tutganini aytdi, natijada "o'qning shamolini boshi aniq sezdim". Lyuis keyinchalik Blackfeet -dan ikkitasi qisqa uchrashuvda o'ldirilganini, lekin u va uning hamrohlari mo''jizaviy tarzda sog' -salomat qutulib qolishganini aniqlab berdi.

Bu orada Klark partiyaning muvozanati bilan janubi -sharqqa ot minib, bugungi Gibbons dovoni orqali Rokki orqali o'tdi. Jefferson daryosiga (hozirda Beaverhead daryosining yuqori qismida) qaytib, suv osti kanolari tiklandi va ta'mirlandi. Klark kanoeda ba'zi odamlarni boshqaradi, u va boshqalar otlar bilan yurishda davom etadilar, hammasi daryodan pastda, Missuri daryosining Uch vilkalar bo'g'inigacha.

Bu erda guruh bo'lindi. Kanoeda sayohatchilar Missuri shtatidan Oq Bear oroligacha davom etishdi va u erda keshlangan uskunalarini topib, sharshara atrofiga ko'chirishdi. Klark qolganlari bilan Yellouston daryosini kashf qilish uchun sharqqa otlarini minib ketishdi. Ekspeditsiya Sacagavea bolaligidan eslab qolgan Shoshone erlari orqali yana o'tayotganda, Klark uning "menga uchuvchi sifatidagi katta xizmatini" maqtadi.

Yelloustonga etib kelgach, yangi kanoeda yasashdi. Klark uchta odamga otlarni quruqlikka haydashni tayinladi, qolganlari esa daryo bo'yida suzib ketishdi. 1806 yil 25 -iyulda Klark Yellouston daryosining janubiy qirg'og'ida (Montana) g'ayrioddiy tosh shakllanishini Sakagaveaning o'g'li sharafiga "Pompi minorasi" deb nomladi.

Tomonlar 12 avgustda Yellouston va Missuri daryolari qo'shilish joyi yaqinida birlashdilar. Bu erda Klark Lyuisning Missuri shtati qirg'og'ida o'yin qidirish paytida otib o'ldirilganini bilib oldi. Koptok kiyimida kapitan Lyuisni Per Kruzatta ilon deb atashgan. Klark jarohatni o'zlari olib yurgan dori -darmonlar bilan davoladi va kiydirdi.

17 -avgust kuni Mandan qishloqlariga kelgan Charbonneau oilasi ekspeditsiyadan yig'ildi. Xususiy Jon Kolter, o'z iltimosiga binoan, Missuri shtatida joylashgan mo'ynali kiyimlar tuzog'iga qo'shilish uchun bo'shatildi. Partiyaning qolgan qismi Mandan boshlig'i va uning oilasi bilan birga uyga sayohatning oxirgi bosqichida Missuri shtatiga yo'l oldi.

Postlude: 1806 yil 23 sentyabrdan keyin

1806 yil 23 -sentabrda, buzilgan kashfiyot korpusi Sent -Luisga etib keldi va "uning aholisi tomonidan samimiy kutib olindi". Jefferson tadqiqotchilari 2 yil, 4 oy va 9 kun mobaynida 8000 millik hududni bosib o'tdilar. Uning yozuvlari er, tabiiy boyliklar va mahalliy xalqlar haqida muhim ma'lumotlarni o'z ichiga olgan. Lyuis va Klark Rokki tog 'zanjirining hayratlanarli kengligi Jeffersonning Missuri va Kolumbiya daryo tizimlari orasidagi umidli yo'lini yo'q qilganini bilib olishdi. Bu topilma mo'yna savdogarlari va boshqa tadqiqotchilarning g'arbga safarlari paytida hozirgi Janubiy dovon (Vayoming) orqali o'tishga olib keldi. Qiyinchiliklarga qaramay, Lyuis va Klark ekspeditsiyadan keyin do'st bo'lib qolishdi. Kongress harbiy korxona ofitserlari va erkaklarini, shu jumladan Toussaint Charbonneau, er ajratdi. Na Sakagava, na York o'z xizmatlari uchun tovon puli olmagan.

1807 yil 28 fevralda prezident Jefferson Lyuisni Luiziana shtati gubernatori etib sayladi. Uning karerasi yaxshi boshlangan, lekin 1809 yilda hukumat moliya bilan bog'liq tortishuvlar yuzaga kelgan, uning mojaroni hal qilish uchun Vashingtonga borishga qaror qilgan. Tennessi shtati bo'ylab sayohat qilib, gubernator Meriwether Lyuis 1809 yil 11 oktyabrda Grinder's Stendda, jamoat yo'llari uyida o'qdan olingan o'qlardan sirli tarzda vafot etdi. U o'ldirilganmi yoki o'z joniga qasd qilganmi, aniq ma'lum emas. Uning qabri Tennessi shtatining Xohenvald yaqinidagi Natchez Trace milliy bog'ida joylashgan.

Klark Sent -Luisda umrbod, sharafli davlat xizmatida bo'lgan. 1807 yil 12 martda Jefferson unga militsiya brigadasi generalini va Yuqori Luiziana hududi uchun hind agentini tayinladi. 1813 yilda u Missuri shtati gubernatori etib tayinlandi, bu lavozimda u 1820 yilda Missuri shtati bo'lgunga qadar ishlagan. 1822 yilda Prezident Monro tomonidan Hindiston ishlari bo'yicha nazoratchisi etib tayinlangan. U bu lavozimga har bir keyingi prezident tomonidan qayta tayinlangan va umrining oxirigacha shu lavozimda ishlagan. General Uilyam Klark 1838 yil 1 sentyabrda Sent -Luisda tabiiy sabablarga ko'ra vafot etdi va Sent -Luisdagi Bellefonteyn qabristonidagi Klarklar oilasi dafn qilindi.


G'arbni o'rganish

1803–1804 yil qishda Lyuis va Klark Missisipi shtatining sharqiy qirg'og'idagi Kamp -Duboisda hozirgi Illinoys shtatidagi odamlarni yollashdi, o'qitishdi va etkazib berishdi. 1804 yil mart oyida Yuqori Luiziana Qo'shma Shtatlarga rasmiy ko'chirilgandan so'ng, ekspeditsiya o'sha yilning 14 mayida rasman jo'nab ketdi.

Patrik Gass va Lyuis va Klark ekspeditsiyasining shaxsiy jurnali

Patrik Gassning ikkinchi nashri ' Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari armiyasi kapitani Lyuis va kapitan Klark qo'mondonligi ostida kashfiyot korpusining sayohatlari va sayohatlari jurnali, Missuri daryosining og'zidan Shimoliy Amerikaning ichki qismlari orqali Tinch okeanigacha. , 1804, 1805 va 1806 yillar davomida (1810) Lyuis va Klark ekspeditsiyasining o'yilgan oltita manzarasini o'z ichiga oladi, shu jumladan 1806 yil 30 -mayda sodir bo'lgan voqea tasviri. Daryodan o'tayotganda, ekspeditsiyaning ikki a'zosi qayiqda suvga chiqib ketayotgan daraxtga borib urildi. Qayiq cho'kdi va uchta adyol yo'qoldi. Erkaklarning ko'pchiligi safar uchun faqat bitta adyol olib kelishgan, shuning uchun adyolning yo'qolishi katta zarba deb hisoblangan.

Gass Lyuis va Klark ekspeditsiyasida serjant bo'lib xizmat qilgan va sayohatlari davomida shaxsiy jurnalini yuritgan. Uning jurnalining bu nashri Filadelfiyadan Metyu Keri tomonidan bosilgan. Gass 's asarining 1807 yilda nashr etilgan birinchi nashrida hech qanday illyustratsiya bo'lmagan. Gass chizilgan rasmlarni o'zi yaratgan yoki boshqa rassom bilan maslahatlashgan bo'lishi mumkin. Bu rasm kitobning old qismi sifatida ishlatilgan. (Yuqori o'ngda ko'rsatilgan sahifa raqami voqea tasvirlangan sahifadagi sahifani bildiradi.) Gass 's jurnali bu ekspeditsiya haqida chop etilgan birinchi hisob edi, u & quot; Kashfiyot korpuslari & quot; atamasini kiritdi.

Patrik Gassning ikkinchi nashri ' Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari armiyasi kapitani Lyuis va kapitan Klark qo'mondonligi ostida kashfiyot korpusining sayohatlari va sayohatlari jurnali, Missuri daryosining og'zidan Shimoliy Amerikaning ichki qismlari orqali Tinch okeanigacha. , 1804, 1805 va 1806 yillar davomida (1810) Lyuis va Klark ekspeditsiyasining o'yilgan oltita manzarasini o'z ichiga oladi, shu jumladan 1804 yil 3-avgustda hozirgi Nebraska shtatida hindular bilan rasmiy uchrashuv tasvirlangan. Bu ekspeditsiyada serjant bo'lib xizmat qilgan. Bu uchrashuv haqida yozgan shaxsiy jurnalida, "Kapitan Lyuis va kapitan Klark hindular bilan kengash o'tkazdilar, ular hukumat almashishidan va ular uchun qilingan ishlardan juda mamnun bo'lishdi. Ulardan oltitasi boshliq, uchtasi Otos va uchtasi Missuri edi

Gass 's jurnalining bu nashri Filadelfiyadan Metyu Keri tomonidan bosilgan. 1807 yilda nashr etilgan birinchi nashrda hech qanday illyustratsiya bo'lmagan. Gass may have created the drawings himself, or he may have consulted with another artist. Gass's journal was the first such account published about the expedition in it, he coined the term "Corps of Discovery."

The second edition of Patrick Gass's A Journal of the Voyages and Travels of a Corps of Discovery, Under the Command of Capt. Lewis and Capt. Clarke of the Army of the United States, From the Mouth of the River Missouri Through the Interior Parts of North America to the Pacific Ocean, During the Years 1804, 1805 and 1806 (1810) includes six engraved scenes from the Lewis and Clark Expedition, including this depiction of activity that took place in November 1804. The men are portrayed building a winter encampment near the Mandan Indian villages in present-day North Dakota.

Gass served as a sergeant in the expedition and kept a personal journal during their travels. This edition of his journal was printed by Mathew Carey of Philadelphia. The first edition of Gass's work, published in 1807, did not include any illustrations. Gass may have created the drawings himself, or he may have consulted with another artist. Gass's journal was the first such account published about the expedition in it, he coined the term "Corps of Discovery."

The second edition of Patrick Gass's A Journal of the Voyages and Travels of a Corps of Discovery, Under the Command of Capt. Lewis and Capt. Clarke of the Army of the United States, From the Mouth of the River Missouri Through the Interior Parts of North America to the Pacific Ocean, During the Years 1804, 1805 and 1806 (1810) includes six engraved scenes from the Lewis and Clark Expedition, including this depiction of an event that took place on June 4, 1805. One of the expedition members, scouting ahead for a place to camp for the night, was attacked by a bear. When his gun misfired, William Clark and a few other explorers, who were atop a bluff about 200 yards away, took aim at the bears and drove them away.

Gass served as a sergeant during the expedition and kept a personal journal during their travels. This edition of his journal was printed by Mathew Carey of Philadelphia. The first edition published in 1807 did not include any illustrations. Gass may have created the drawings himself, or he may have consulted with another artist. Gass's journal was the first such account published about the expedition in it, he coined the term "Corps of Discovery."

The second edition of Patrick Gass's A Journal of the Voyages and Travels of a Corps of Discovery, Under the Command of Capt. Lewis and Capt. Clarke of the Army of the United States, From the Mouth of the River Missouri Through the Interior Parts of North America to the Pacific Ocean, During the Years 1804, 1805 and 1806 (1810) includes six engraved scenes from the Lewis and Clark Expedition. This depicts an event that took place on July 15, 1806. An expedition member, alone in the wilderness, encountered a white bear and was thrown by his horse. The man stunned the bear by hitting him with his gun&mdashbreaking the gun in the process&mdashand then clambered up a tree. The man remained there for three hours while the bear stood vigil below. When the animal finally wandered off, the man headed back to camp. Gass, who served as a sergeant in expedition and kept a personal journal during their travels, wrote: "These bears are very numerous in this part of the country and very dangerous, as they will attack a man every opportunity."

This edition of the journal was printed by Mathew Carey of Philadelphia. The first edition of Gass's work, published in 1807, did not include any illustrations. Gass may have created the drawings himself, or he may have consulted with another artist. Gass's journal was the first such account published about the expedition in it, he coined the term "Corps of Discovery."

The second edition of Patrick Gass's A Journal of the Voyages and Travels of a Corps of Discovery, Under the Command of Capt. Lewis and Capt. Clarke of the Army of the United States, From the Mouth of the River Missouri Through the Interior Parts of North America to the Pacific Ocean, During the Years 1804, 1805 and 1806 (1810), includes six engraved scenes from the Lewis and Clark Expedition. This engraving depicts an event that took place on July 27, 1806. While exploring an area north of the Missouri River, expedition commander Meriwether Lewis traded with a party of Indians who attempted to steal the group's rifles and horses the following morning. A skirmish ensued, and Lewis shot one of the Indians.

Gass served as a sergeant in the Lewis and Clark Expedition and kept a personal journal during their travels. This edition of his journal was printed by Mathew Carey of Philadelphia. The first edition of Gass's work, published in 1807, did not include any illustrations. Gass may have created the drawings himself, or he may have consulted with another artist. Gass's journal was the first such account published about the expedition in it, he coined the term "Corps of Discovery."

During the ascent of the Missouri, most of the expedition’s members were engaged in the challenging task of rowing and occasionally towing their vessels against the river’s powerful current. Clark, an experienced river navigator, usually remained aboard one of the vessels. (He was also the expedition’s main cartographer.) Meanwhile, Lewis often went ashore to observe the landscape, gather plant and wildlife samples, and supervise a few men who hunted for the animals that were the expedition’s principal source of food.

In November 1804 the expedition constructed a winter encampment near the Mandan Indian villages. Quickly named Fort Mandan, it was located near what is now Washburn, North Dakota. Lewis and Clark used this opportunity to cull out members of the expedition, selecting the most reliable, hardy, and talented men to continue and sending the rest back to Saint Louis with numerous plant and animal samples, as well as a lengthy report to Jefferson. Lewis concluded that report optimistically, writing, “I can foresee no material or probable obstruction to our progress, and entertain therefore the most sanguine hopes of complete success… At this moment, every individual of the party are in good health, and excellent sperits [sic] zealously attached to the enterprise, and anxious to proceed… With such men I have every thing to hope, and but little to fear.”

A smaller contingent of thirty-three people (soon called “the permanent party”) set out from Fort Mandan in April 1805. This was a diverse cohort. Anglo-Americans like Lewis and Clark dominated the members of the U.S. Army on the expedition, but they were barely a majority of the total expedition. Several men of French and Indian ancestry (often called Métis) had joined the party to serve as translators, guides, and scouts. One of the Métis, Toussaint Charbonneau, brought his wife, Sacajawea, a young woman born a Shoshone Indian but captured as a young girl by the Hidatsa, a Sioux tribe, and raised in their villages. In February 1805 Sacajawea had given birth to a son, Jean Baptiste Charbonneau, but quickly recovered from childbirth and managed to care for the infant even as the expedition got under way. Clark’s slave York, who had long served as his manservant, also remained with the group as it continued westward.

In the summer of 1805, the expedition reached the headwaters of the Missouri River in the Rocky Mountains and then located the nearby headwaters of the Columbia. It was near the Missouri, perhaps, but not directly connected, as Jefferson had hoped. As Lewis immediately realized, there was no Northwest Passage.

After completing a lengthy and arduous overland passage through the Rocky Mountains, the expedition quickly descended the Columbia River, reaching the Pacific Ocean on November 15, 1805. When Clark erroneously thought he had sighted the Pacific on November 7 (it was, in fact, most likely Puget Sound), he wrote a passage in his journal that captured the sentiment within the expedition: “Great joy in camp we are in View of the Ocian, this great Pacific Octean which we been So long anxious to See.” Later that month the expedition built a winter encampment, Fort Clatsop, located a few miles from what is now Astoria, Oregon.

The party departed for the return trip on March 23, 1806. Drawing on the geographic knowledge they had acquired during their travels west, the expedition made an efficient return trip, reaching Saint Louis just six months later, on September 23. The party then dispersed. Lewis and Clark soon left for Washington, enjoying celebratory gatherings along the way before finally reporting personally to Jefferson.


Featured Video

Sent by President Thomas Jefferson to find the Northwest Passage, Meriwether Lewis and William Clark led the most important expedition in American history. This extraordinary film tells the remarkable story of the entire Corps of Discovery – not just of the two Captains, but the young army men, French-Canadian boatmen, Clark’s African-American slave, and the Shoshone woman named Sacagawea, who brought along her infant son. As important to the story as these many characters, however, was the land itself, and the promises it held.

The mission of the Corps of Discovery was to explore the uncharted West. Beginning February 28, 1803 It would be led by Meriwether Lewis, and Lewis’ friend, William Clark. Over the next four years, the Corps of Discovery would travel thousands of miles, experiencing lands, rivers and peoples that no Americans ever had before. Ken Burns' LEWIS & CLARK re-creates the 1803 journey to locate the Northwest Passage. The explorers found a varied landscape and a dizzying diversity of Indian peoples.


Little Known Facts - 5

By the time President Thomas Jefferson returned to Washington, D.C. in 1802 from his customary summer respite at Monticello he had decided to include a proposal in his annual message to Congress to send a small exploratory expedition across the continent in search of an “all-water” route to the Pacific coast (in short, in search of the fabled Northwest Passage). When he circulated the draft message among members of his Cabinet, Secretary of the Treasury Albert Gallatin recommended the proposal for western exploration be the subject of a separate confidential message “as it contemplates an expedition out of our own territory.”

Jefferson took Gallatin’s advice. On January 18, 1803, in a secret message to Congress he requested an “appropriation of two thousand five hundred dollars ‘for the purpose of extending the external commerce of the U.S.’ while understood by the Executive as giving the legislative sanction, would cover the undertaking from notice, and prevent the obstructions which interested individuals might otherwise previously prepare in it’s way.” (Italics added.) Congress complied with the president’s request and approved the appropriation.

Thus, in a manner of speaking, the venture that was to become known as the Lewis and Clark Expedition was conceived and authorized in secrecy. In reality, from the outset it was known not only by the president and his personal secretary, Meriwether Lewis, but also by all members of his Cabinet and all members of both houses of Congress. As a matter of fact, this “state secret” became known to an ever-widening circle of confidants even as Jefferson and his chosen commander insisted on maintaining the fiction of strict confidentiality.

In December of 1802, President Jefferson had confided his plan (even before his secret message to Congress) to the Spanish ambassador to the U.S., Sr. Carlos Martinez de Yrujo, when he sought an official passport authorizing the explorers to cross Spain’s trans-Mississippi territories to the Pacific coast. Ever cautious, Ambassador Martinez de Yrujo declined Jefferson’s request and promptly reported the overture to his superiors in Madrid. Rebuffed, but undaunted, Jefferson subsequently made similar requests of the British and French ambassadors, both of whom were more obliging.

After the president appointed Meriwether Lewis to head the expedition, he enlisted the assistance of four of the nation’s leading natural scientists, all personal friends of his who were with the American Philosophical Society in Philadelphia, to tutor Lewis in such subjects as botany, biology, medicine and celestial navigation. He implored each of them to hold the pending expedition in “strictest confidence.” Hence, the circle of those sharing the “state secret” widened accordingly.

Still later, Lewis and Jefferson decided it would be prudent to recruit a second commanding officer in case some mishap befell Lewis while en route. In an extraordinary letter detailing the particulars of the mission, Lewis invited his former commanding officer, William Clark of Kentucky (and the Indiana Territory), to join him on equal terms to lead the endeavor. True to form, Lewis asked Clark to hold the information conveyed to him in complete confidence. Upon his acceptance of Lewis’s invitation, Clark was commissioned to recruit some vigorous, young, unmarried men possessing hunting skills and considerable capacity for hard work to join in the enterprise. As he did so, Clark at Lewis’s suggestion initially used a cover story alleging the purpose of the expedition was to ascend the Mississippi River and locate its headwaters. That subterfuge was maintained until just before the expedition pushed off up the Missouri River from its winter quarters at Camp River Dubois on May 14, 1804.

Clearly, Meriwether Lewis’s “hush-hush” mission was an open secret long before members of the expedition set foot in Spain’s former Louisiana Territory.

Stephen E. Ambrose, Undaunted Courage: Meriwether Lewis, Thomas Jefferson, and the Opening of the West (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996), pp. 77-100.

Donald Jackson, ed., Letters of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, with Related Documents, 1783-1854 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1978), vol. 1, various letters and documents, pp. 2-41.


Funding for Exploration

The famous Lewis and Clark expedition is a story of American pioneering. This first major journey of exploration led the way for vast wilderness to eventually become the “settled” West. Today’s spotlight document focuses on the very start of this expedition, when in 1803 President Thomas Jefferson sent this confidential letter to Congress.

Shortly after the Louisiana Purchase, President Jefferson secretly wrote to Congress requesting $2,500 to send “an intelligent officer, with ten or twelve chosen men” on a mission westward. The primary goal for what would become the 8,000 mile Lewis and Clark expedition was to seek out trade routes—all the way to the Pacific Ocean—and begin relations with the tribes of Native Americans in the West.

Secondly, Meriwether Lewis and William Clark were to report back on the scientific and economic resources beyond the Mississippi River geography, zoology, botany, and climate are just some of the subjects covered in the expedition journals and sketches.

Financial backing was the first step to taking such an extensive journey, and so President Jefferson wrapped his grand vision of western discovery in the modest aim of promoting commerce. Congress agreed to provide the expedition’s funding, and in the end, Lewis and Clark were well prepared. While luxuries of tobacco and whiskey did not last the entire journey, rifles were never empty of powder, and all of the expedition’s findings were able to be recorded with ink and paper.

This letter and other documents about the exploration are available online on DocsTeach.

Today’s post came from former social media intern Holly Chisholm.


Lewis and Clark: Sacagawea

Sacagawea earned Lewis and Clark’s respect, but she never received any money or awards for her service. Today we recognize her as one of the most valuable members of the Corps of Discovery.

Fun Facts

  • The U.S. issued a coin in the year 2000 that shows an American-Indian woman carrying a baby on her back. This woman is Sacagawea.
  • Sacagawea was born in 1789 or 1790 in what is now Idaho. She belonged to the Shoshone nation and lived along the Bitterroot Range of the Rocky Mountains. Her people camped near the Snake River.
  • Her name means “bird woman,” maybe because she was small and had quick movements like a bird. She loved her parents, her two brothers, and her sister.
  • Sacagawea didn’t go to school, but she learned how to hunt, find food, make clothing, and other useful skills from her mother. She liked to play games with her friends.
  • When she was 10 or 11, she was kidnapped by a Minnetaree warrior and taken to his village 600 miles from her home. A French trader, Charbonneau, traded with the Indians for Sacagawea. She became his wife at the age of 13 or 14. She had her first baby when she was 16.
  • Lewis and Clark met Charbonneau and Sacagawea. They gave the fur trader $500 to join them as an interpreter.
  • When Sacagawea was about to give birth, she drank a mixture of powdered rattlesnake tail and water, which was supposed to make the birth easier. Her baby was born 10 minutes later! Charbonneau named him Jean Baptiste Clark called him Pomp.
  • As the party traveled west, Sacagawea was happy. She was traveling toward her people. Finally they met her brother and family. Sacagawea was so happy. She helped trade for horses.
  • The group was often cold and hungry. Mosquitoes and fleas made them miserable and some of them got sick or injured. Sacagawea was good at finding plants for medicine and food.
  • But one time, Sacagawea became very ill. Lewis and Clark were worried. They knew how valuable she was to the group. And who would care for her baby if she died? They took turns caring for her themselves. Finally she got better.
  • During the winter of 1806, a whale washed ashore from the Pacific Ocean. Many of the men were excited to go see it, but Sacagawea was not invited. She told Lewis and Clark that it was not fair. She said she had worked hard for the group and should be allowed to go. Clark took her to see the whale.
  • Finally the party returned to St. Louis and it was time for Sacagawea to say goodbye to Lewis and Clark.

Questions and Answers

Question: What happened to Sacagawea after the expedition ended?
Answer: Charbonneau, Sacagawea, and their children went back to live at the Mandan Indian village. They got a letter from Clark, who had become very fond of all of them. Clark invited them to come start a farm near St. Louis. The family came for about six months but Charbonneau became restless. He took Sacagawea on a fur-trading trip, but left Pomp with Clark and his wife, Julia. Sacagawea died in 1812 after giving birth. She was 25 years old. Clark and Julia raised both Pomp and Sacagawea’s daughter, Lizette.

Sacagawea wasn’t always given the credit she deserved, but today we know how brave, strong, and resourceful she was. Several lakes are named after her and there are numerous sculptures in her honor.


Although the efforts of fur traders brought limited notice of the Northwest Coast of North America to the United States, it may be said that Meriwether Lewis and William Clark really introduced Americans to the Pacific Northwest. The expedition of their Corps of Discovery, between 1803 and 1806, was a national triumph that greatly increased awareness of the region and its Native inhabitants, staked a stronger U.S. claim to the Northwest, accelerated economic development of adjacent areas, and made the two captains into heroes of an astonishing story. Lewis and Clark kept detailed records of the lands and peoples they encountered. And because they traveled by land rather than sea, their accounts represent the first non-native observations of the vast region inland from the coast.

The Lewis and Clark expedition has been documented and studied thoroughly. The definitive account of the explorers’ own record is now the 13-volume edition of Moulton (1983-2001) (vols. 5-7 deal with the Pacific Northwest). A briefer selection of documents, shrewdly arranged, is Barth (1998). In recent years, Stephen E. Ambrose (1996) has highlighted the heroism of the expedition for a wide audience. One of the best scholarly studies of the expedition is Ronda (1984), which surveys the captains’ interactions with Native Americans and tries to understand Indian perceptions of the Corps of Discovery. Many websites devoted to Lewis and Clark have appeared, and in light of the imminent bicentennial of their expedition the number is growing. The Department of History at Washington State University has compiled one site, aimed at secondary school teachers and students, that examines the explorers’ interactions with Indians of the Northwest:

One key to understanding the literature of discovery is appreciating that discoverers were “programmed” to look for and see certain things, and that the successive expeditions of explorers, or distinct generations of observers, were programmed differently. (The concept of “programming” is developed well by Goetzmann [1966].) Vancouver was programmed by the English government to explore in a nationalistic and scientific manner. Robert Gray was programmed by the merchant-investors backing his voyage to see the Northwest as a source of a valuable commodity—sea otter pelts. In the case of the American Corps of Discovery, exploration was to a large extent programmed by President Thomas Jefferson. For years prior to becoming President, Jefferson had wondered about the lands west of the Mississippi River, worried about securing them for the United States, and schemed to conduct exploration of them. Indeed, Jefferson’s Notes on the State of Virginia, composed in the early 1780s, demonstrated his wide-ranging interest in the natural resources and Native peoples of the continent. Jefferson’s instructions to Meriwether Lewis, penned on June 20, 1803, list many objectives for the expedition, but they emphasize economic, geopolitical, and scientific matters. Note in particular that the President emphasized that the explorers seek “the most direct & practicable water communication across this continent, for the purposes of commerce.” He sent Lewis and Clark up the Missouri River, and expected that near its headwaters in the Rockies they would find a relatively convenient connection to the Columbia River system. In short, Jefferson was still looking for a version (albeit a freshwater one) of the Northwest Passage that Juan de Fuca had claimed to exist more than two centuries before.

In justifying the expense of the expedition to Congress, Jefferson emphasized again the commercial and geographic benefits that would accrue, as well as the diplomatic and scientific gains for the United States. Yet he also spoke of the expedition as a “literary pursuit”—suggesting that he anticipated that the discoverers would produce something akin to his own book on Virginia. And indeed the journals of Lewis and Clark probably represent the beginnings in the United States of a Pacific Northwest literature.

UW Site Map © Center for the Study of the Pacific Northwest, University of Washington


To Meriwether Lewis

In the journey which you are about to undertake for the discovery of the course and source of the Missisipi,1 and of the most convenient water communication from thence to the Pacific ocean, your party being small,2 it is to be expected that you will encounter considerable dangers from the Indian inhabitants.3 should you escape those dangers and reach the Pacific ocean, you may find it imprudent to hazard a return the same way, and be forced to seek a passage round by sea, in such vessels as you may find on the Western coast. but you will be without money, without clothes, & other necessaries as a sufficient supply cannot be carried with you from hence.4 your resource in that case can only be in the credit of the US. for which purpose I hereby authorise you to draw on the Secretaries of State, of the Treasury, of War & of the Navy of the US. according as you may find your draughts will be most negociable, for the purpose of obtaining money or necessaries for yourself & your men: and I solemnly5 pledge the faith of the United States that these draughts shall be6 paid punctually at the date they are made payable. I also7 ask of the Consuls, agents, merchants & citizens of any nation with which we have intercourse or amity to furnish you with those supplies which your necessities may call for, assuring them of honorable and prompt retribution. and our own Consuls8 in foreign parts where you may happen to be, are hereby instructed & required to be aiding & assisting to you in whatsoever may be necessary for procuring your return back to the United States. And to give more entire satisfaction & confidence to those who may be disposed to aid you, I Thomas Jefferson, President of the United States of America, have written this letter of general credit for you with my own hand, and signed it with my name.


Videoni tomosha qiling: The Lewis and Clark Expedition (Iyul 2022).


Izohlar:

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